Publications

Journal Papers

  • D. Williams, "On the Use of Tiny Convolutional Neural Networks for Human-Expert-Level Classification Performance in Sonar Imagery," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, in press, February 2020.


  • D. Williams, "A Novel Framework for Evaluating Performance-Estimation Models," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57, No. 8, pp. 5285-5302, August 2019.


  • C. Gournia, E. Fakiris, M. Geraga, D. Williams, and G. Papatheodorou, "Automatic Detection of Trawl-Marks and Fishing Grounds in Sidescan Sonar Images Through Spatial Domain Filtering, Employing Haar-like Features and Morphological Operations," Geosciences, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 214-237, May 2019.


  • D. Williams, "The Mondrian Detection Algorithm for Sonar Imagery," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 1091-1102, February 2018.


  • D. Williams, "Fast Unsupervised Seafloor Characterization in Sonar Imagery Using Lacunarity," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 6022-6034, November 2015.


  • D. Williams, "Fast Target Detection in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery: A New Algorithm and Large-Scale Performance Analysis," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 71-92, January 2015.


  • D. Williams and E. Fakiris, "Exploiting Environmental Information for Improved Underwater Target Classification in Sonar Imagery," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 10, pp. 6284-6297, October 2014.


  • V. Myers and D. Williams, "Adaptive Multi-View Classification of Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images using a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 45-55, January 2012.


  • D. Williams, "AUV-Enabled Adaptive Underwater Surveying for Optimal Data Collection," Intelligent Service Robotics, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 33-54, 2012.


  • D. Williams, "Label-Alteration to Improve Underwater Mine Classification," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 488-492, May 2011.


  • D. Williams, V. Myers, and M. Silvious, "Mine Classification with Imbalanced Data," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 528-532, July 2009.


  • D. Williams, "Bayesian Data Fusion of Multiview Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery for Seabed Classification," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 1239-1254, June 2009.


  • D. Williams, Y. Yu, L. Kennedy, X. Zhu, and L. Carin, "A Bivariate Gaussian Model for Unexploded Ordnance Classification with EMI Data," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 629-633, October 2007.


  • D. Williams, C. Wang, X. Liao, and L. Carin, "Classification of Unexploded Ordnance Using Incomplete Multi-Sensor Multiresolution Data," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 7, Part 2, pp. 2364-2373, July 2007.


  • D. Williams, X. Liao, B. Krishnapuram, Y. Xue, and L. Carin, "On Incomplete-Data Classification," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 427-436, March 2007. (full version with appendices)


  • Conference Papers

  • T. Berthomier, D. Williams, and S. Dugelay, "Target Localization in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery Using Convolutional Neural Networks," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS, Seattle, Washington, October 2019.


  • A. Reed, I. Gerg, J. McKay, D. Brown, D. Williams, and S. Jayasuriya, "Coupling Rendering and Generative Adversarial Networks for Artificial SAS Image Generation," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS, Seattle, Washington, October 2019.


  • D. Williams. "Transfer Learning With SAS-Image Convolutional Neural Networks for Improved Underwater Target Classification," Proceedings of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Yokohama, Japan, August 2019.


  • D. Williams, "Acoustic-Color-Based Convolutional Neural Networks for UXO Classification With Low-Frequency Sonar," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, pp. 421-428, Crete, Greece, July 2019.


  • D. Williams, R. Hamon, and I. Gerg, "On the Benefit of Multiple Representations With Convolutional Neural Networks for Improved Target Classification Using Sonar Data," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, pp. 187-194, Crete, Greece, July 2019.


  • C. Gournia, E. Fakiris, M. Geraga, D. Williams, and G. Papatheodorou, "Environmentally Adaptive Automatic Detection of Linear Seafloor Features in Sidescan Sonar Imagery: The Case of Trawl Marks Detection," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, pp. 211-218, Crete, Greece, July 2019.


  • B. d'Ales, D. Williams, and S. Dugelay, "Target Classification Using Multi-view Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, pp. 227-234, Crete, Greece, July 2019.


  • S. Dugelay, D. Williams, T. Furfaro, J. Melo, V. Yordanova, C. Strode, B. Gips, and Y. Pailhas, "Enabling Autonomous Mine Countermeasures for the NATO Alliance," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, pp. 975-986, Crete, Greece, July 2019.


  • B. Gips and D. Williams, "Through-the-Sensor Performance Estimation of the Mondrian Detection Algorithm in Sonar Imagery," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2018, Charleston, South Carolina, October 2018.


  • D. Williams, "Convolutional Neural Network Transfer Learning for Underwater Object Classification," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Synthetic Aperture Sonar and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Vol. 40, Pt. 2, pp. 123-131, Lerici, Italy, September 2018.


  • I. Gerg and D. Williams, "Additional Representations for Improving Synthetic Aperture Sonar Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Synthetic Aperture Sonar and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Vol. 40, Pt. 2, pp. 11-22, Lerici, Italy, September 2018.


  • D. Williams, "Exploiting Phase Information in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images for Target Classification," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2018, Kobe, Japan, May 2018.


  • D. Williams, "The New Muesli Complexity Metric for Mine-Hunting Difficulty in Sonar Images," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2018, Kobe, Japan, May 2018.


  • D. Williams, "Demystifying Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Sonar Image Classification," Proceedings of the Underwater Acoustics Conference, Skiathos, Greece, September 2017, pp. 513-520.


  • D. Williams, "Underwater Target Classification in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks," Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Cancún, Mexico, December 2016.


  • D. Williams and S. Dugelay, "Multi-view SAS Image Classification Using Deep Learning," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2016, Monterrey, California, September 2016.


  • D. Williams, F. Baralli, M. Micheli, and S. Vasoli, "Adaptive Underwater Sonar Surveys in the Presence of Strong Currents," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, May 2016, pp. 2604-2611.


  • D. Williams and A. Hunter, "Multi-look Processing of High-Resolution SAS Data for Improved Target Detection Performance," Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Quebec City, Canada, September 2015.


  • D. Williams, "Through-the-Sonar Seafloor Characterization Using Lacunarity," Proceedings of Seabed and Sediment Acoustics: Measurements and Modelling, Bath, England, September 2015.


  • D. Williams and A. Hunter, "On the Relationship Between SAS Image Resolution and Target-Detection Performance," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2015, Genoa, Italy, May 2015.


  • A. Tesei, R. Been, D. Williams, B. Cardeira, D. Galletti, D. Cecchi, B. Garau, and A. Maguer, "Passive Acoustic Surveillance of Surface Vessels Using Tridimensional Array on an Underwater Glider," Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2015, Genoa, Italy, May 2015.


  • D. Williams, M. Couillard, and S. Dugelay, "On Human Perception and Automatic Target Recognition: Strategies for Human-Computer Cooperation," Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Stockholm, Sweden, August 2014.


  • R. van Vossen, S. Giodini, A. Hunter, A. Beckers, and D. Williams, "Evaluation and Adaptation of Mine-Hunting Operations with AUVs," Proceedings of the European Conference on Undersea Defence Technology, Hamburg, Germany, June 2013.


  • D. Williams and E. Fakiris, "A New Environmentally Adaptive Classification Algorithm for Underwater Mines in SAS Imagery," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Corfu, Greece, June 2013, pp. 703-711.


  • D. Williams, "On the Utility of Coherence for Underwater Object Detection in SAS Images," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Corfu, Greece, June 2013, pp. 615-622.


  • S. Dugelay, E. Fakiris, and D. Williams, "Global SAS Image Registration With Acoustic Anisotropy and Complexity," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Corfu, Greece, June 2013, pp. 135-142.


  • E. Fakiris, D. Williams, M. Couillard, and W. Fox, "Sea-Floor Acoustic Anisotropy and Complexity Assessment Towards Prediction of ATR Performance," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements, Corfu, Greece, June 2013, pp. 1277-1284.


  • D. Williams, "SAS and Bathymetric Data Fusion for Improved Target Classification," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Remote Sensing (ICoURS), Brest, France, October 2012.


  • M. Couillard and D. Williams, "Performance Assessment of an Adaptive AUV Survey," Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Remote Sensing (ICoURS), Brest, France, October 2012.


  • D. Williams and M. Couillard, "Efficient Dense Sonar Surveys With an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle," Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (ECUA), Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2012.


  • E. Galceran, V. Djapic, M. Carreras, and D.Williams, "A Real-time Underwater Object Detection Algorithm for Multi-beam Forward Looking Sonar," IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of Underwater Vehicles (NGCUV), Porto, Portugal, April 2012.


  • D. Williams, A. Vermeij, F. Baralli, J. Groen, and W. Fox, "In Situ AUV Survey Adaptation Using Through-the-Sensor Sonar Data," Proceedings of the 37th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, March 2012. (poster)


  • D. Williams, "On Adaptive Underwater Object Detection," Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), San Francisco, California, September 2011, pp. 4741-4748.


  • Y. Xue, D. Williams, and H. Qui, "Classification with Imperfect Labels for Fault Prediction," Proceedings of the Workshop on Data Mining for Service and Maintenance at the 17th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD), San Diego, California, August 2011.


  • J. Groen, D. Williams, and W. Fox, "A Model-Based Multi-view Image Registration Method for SAS Images," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference & Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements (UAM), Kos, Greece, June 2011.


  • D. Williams and J. Groen, "A Fast Physics-Based, Environmentally Adaptive Underwater Object Detection Algorithm," IEEE OCEANS 2011, Santander, Spain, June 2011.


  • E. Coiras, D. Williams, and J. Groen, "Mosaicking Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images using Dynamic Constraints," IEEE OCEANS 2011, Santander, Spain, June 2011.


  • V. Myers and D. Williams, "A POMDP for Multiview Target Classification with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle," IEEE OCEANS 2010, Seattle, Washington, September 2010.


  • D. Williams, "Underwater Mine Classification with Imperfect Labels," Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Istanbul, Turkey, August 2010, pp. 4157-4161. (poster)


  • J. Groen, E. Coiras, and D. Williams, "False-Alarm Reduction in Mine Classification using Multiple Looks from a Synthetic Aperture Sonar," IEEE OCEANS 2010, Sydney, Australia, May 2010.


  • J. Groen, E. Coiras, V. Djapic, M. Pinto, and D. Williams, "The Future Autonomous Naval Mine Countermeasures System," 9th International Symposium on Technology and the Mine Problem, Monterrey, California, May 2010.


  • D. Williams, "On Optimal AUV Track-Spacing for Underwater Mine Detection," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Anchorage, Alaska, May 2010, pp. 4755-4762.


  • D. Williams, "Image-Quality Prediction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery," Proceedings of the 35th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Dallas, Texas, March 2010, pp. 2114-2117. [Extended Version] (poster)


  • D. Williams and E. Coiras, "On Sand Ripple Detection in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery," Proceedings of the 35th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Dallas, Texas, March 2010, pp. 1074-1077. (poster)


  • D. Williams and J. Groen, "On the Effects of Synthetic-Aperture Length on SAS Seabed Segmentation," Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent System Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, November 2009, pp. 590-595.


  • D. Williams, "Unsupervised Seabed Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery via Wavelet Features and Spectral Clustering," Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Cairo, Egypt, November 2009, pp. 557-560. (poster)


  • D. Williams, "A Comprehensive MCM Approach with AUVs," Workshop on Machine Intelligence for Autonomous Operations, Lerici, Italy, October 2009.


  • D. Williams and J. Groen, "Multi-View Target Classification in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery," Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements (UAM), Nafplion, Greece, June 2009, pp. 699-704.


  • J. Groen, E. Coiras, and D. Williams, "Detection Rate Statistics in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images," Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements (UAM), Nafplion, Greece, June 2009, pp. 367-374.


  • E. Coiras, J. Groen, D. Williams, B. Evans, and M. Pinto, "Automatic Change Detection for the Monitoring of Cluttered Underwater Areas," Proceedings of the 1st International Conference & Exhibition on Waterside Security (WSS), Copenhagen, Denmark, August 2008.


  • D. Williams, "Gaussian Process Classification Using Image Deformation," Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2007, Vol. 2, pp. 605-608. (poster)


  • M. Schatten, B. Burns, W. Clark, J. Alexander, D. Williams, and L. Carin, "Airborne Ground Penetrating Radar Change Detection of In-Road and Roadside IEDs," Military Sensing Symposium on Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception (MSS CC&D), Orlando, Florida, February 2007.


  • D. Williams, X. Liao, Y. Xue, and L. Carin, "Incomplete-Data Classification Using Logistic Regression," Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), Bonn, Germany, August 2005, pp. 977-984.


  • D. Williams and L. Carin, "Analytical Kernel Matrix Completion with Incomplete Multi-View Data," Proceedings of the Workshop on Learning with Multiple Views at the 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), Bonn, Germany, August 2005, pp. 80-86.


  • B. Krishnapuram, D. Williams, Y. Xue, L. Carin, M. Figueiredo, and A. Hartemink, "Active Learning of Features and Labels," Proceedings of the Workshop on Learning with Multiple Views at the 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), Bonn, Germany, August 2005, pp. 43-50.


  • B. Krishnapuram, D. Williams, Y. Xue, L. Carin, A. Hartemink, and M. Figueiredo, "On Semi-Supervised Classification," Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 17, Vancouver, Canada, December 2005, pp. 721-728.


  • NURC/CMRE Reports

  • D. Williams, "DW-CNNs: Sonar-Based Deep Learning for Mine Countermeasures Operations (Software Release and User Guide -- Version 1.0)," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-SP-2019-002, October 2019. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "Multi-view Classification With Deep Learning for Mine Countermeasures," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-MR-2015-012, December 2015. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "North Sea MCM Experiment 2015 (NSMEX'15) Summary," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-CR-2015-05-NSMEX, July 2015. [NATO Unclassified]


  • S. Dugelay, D. Williams, G. Okopal, W. Connors, O. Midtgaard, T. Saebo, M. Geilhufe, O. Lorentzen, M. Ditzel, G. Beckers, J. Beldowski, C. Francis, A. Mannoni, M. Meltzer, P. Ostenstad, and A. Hesby, "MANEX'14: Experimental Description and Preliminary Results," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-MR-2014-013, December 2014. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "Analysis of Multinational, Multi-system SAS Data for MCM: A Workshop Summary," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-XR-2014-001, November 2014. [NATO Restricted]


  • M. Couillard, S. Dugelay, and D. Williams, "ITMINEX'14: Experimental Description and Preliminary Results," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-MR-2014-006, July 2014. [NATO Restricted]


  • D. Williams, "A Large-Scale Analysis of MCM Detection Performance for Surrogate Targets in SAS Imagery," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-FR-2013-020, December 2013. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "Exploiting Environmental Information for Improved Underwater Target Classification," Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report CMRE-FR-2013-018, December 2013. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "Theoretical Performance Assessment of Pre-planned and Adaptive MCM Survey Strategies With an AUV," NATO Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report NURC-FR-2012-001, March 2012. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, J. Groen, and W. Fox, "A Fast Detection Algorithm for Autonomous Mine Countermeasures," NATO Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report NURC-FR-2011-006, October 2011. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "On Multi-View Mine Classification with SAS Imagery," NATO Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report NURC-FR-2008-026, November 2008. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams, "Bayesian Data Fusion of Multi-View SAS Imagery for Seabed Classification," NATO Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy, Technical Report NURC-FR-2008-025, November 2008. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams and B. Evans, "A Comprehensive Autonomy Architecture for MCM AUVs," NATO Undersea Research Centre Technical Report NURC-FR-2008-018, June 2008. [NATO Unclassified]


  • B. Evans and D. Williams, "MCM AUV Autonomy: Requirements, Approach and System Implementation," NATO Undersea Research Centre Technical Report NURC-FR-2007-020, October 2007. [NATO Unclassified]


  • D. Williams and V. Myers, "Automatic Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imagery Using Template Deformation and Gaussian Processes," NATO Undersea Research Centre Technical Report NURC-FR-2007-006, March 2007. [NATO Restricted]


  • Other Technical Reports

  • D. Williams, "Cubist-Inspired Deep Learning with Sonar for UXO Detection and Classification," Final Report, SERDP Project MR18-1444, January 2019.


  • L. Carin, D. Williams, N. Dasgupta, and C. Cramer, "An H-POMDP Framework for Software Attack-Modeling," Signal Innovations Group Technical Report, July 2007.


  • D. Williams and V. Myers, "Classification via Image Deformation: Theory and Implementation Details," Technical Report, August 2006.


  • D. Williams and L. Carin, "Image Classification with Incomplete Multiresolution Data," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical Report, November 2005.


  • D. Williams, X. Liao, Y. Xue, and L. Carin, "Fusion of Incomplete Multi-Sensor Data for Classification," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical Report, October 2005.


  • D. Williams, X. Liao, and L. Carin, "Active Data Acquisition with Incomplete Data," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical Report, October 2005.


  • D. Williams, X. Liao, and L. Carin, "Active Data Acquisition with Incomplete Data," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical Report, September 2005.


  • Theses and Book Chapters

  • E. Coiras and D. Williams, "Approaches to Automatic Seabed Classification," chapter in Pattern Recognition, Peng-Yeng Yin (Ed.), INTECH, 2009.


  • D. Williams, "Classification and Data Acquisition with Incomplete Data," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ph.D. Dissertation, May 2006.


  • D. Williams, "Target Detection, Clutter Rejection, and Target Classification in Forward-Looking Infrared Imagery," Duke University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MS Thesis, December 2003.

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